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Nepal

Nepal, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal located in South Asia between China and India. The landlocked Himalayan country has eight of the world’s 14 tallest mountains with the top of the world, Mount Everest. An altitude is extending at 60 m to 8848 m in a129 km distance. An official language is Nepali in the multi-linguistic, multi-ethnic, multi-religious and multicultural kingdom. The hunting and gathering group has lived for 10000 years. An independent, never colonized territory is popular for the high mountains, rivers, forests, flora, fauna, culture, Living Goddess, the birthplace of Gautama Buddha, world-famous Gurkha, Highlander Sherpa, shamanism faiths, ancient art, architecture, tradition, cuisine, and ethical dress. Kathmandu Valley, Synja Valley, Lumbini, and Janakpur is the civilization centers of Nepal.

Nepal is the world’s 93rd largest and 41st most populous country with three different geographical layers the Himalayan, Hilly and Terai Region with 36000 villages. The second largest water resource country has 6000 rivers, including rivulets. The volume of water is 200 billion cubic meters per annum. The potentiality of hydro power is 83000 MW though installed capacity is 880 MW. Nepalese society based on the hierarchies, segmental, and the hunting and gathering group. Ethnic and cast groups identified 125, which belong to four major groups Mongoloid, Caucasoid, Munda, and Dravid. The vegetation covers 51.6% land, including 29% forest, 10.6% shrub and 12% grassland. Flowering plants are 7000, including 1000 medicinal purpose, 2000 food value, 100-timber value, and 150 cash crops. An arable land in the country covers 2600000-hectare and wetland covers 700000-hectare.

Nepal has endless ranges of hills and the 1310 mountain peaks. An ecological dreamland has 181 species of mammal, including 27 species of endangered, 873 species of bird (migratory and residential), 600 species of butterfly, 50 species of moth, 180 species of dragonfly, 170 species of fish, 100 species of reptile, and 43 species of amphibian. The country has 118 ecosystems, 35 forest types, 12 national parks, 1 wildlife reserve, 12 buffer zones, 1 hunting reserve, and 6 conservation areas, which covers 23.23 % land. Top 40 facts about Nepal are below.

1 – Government

Official Name: Government of Nepal

Political System – The Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal on 29 May 2008.

Prime Minister – Sher Bahadur Deuba (40th)

President – Bidhya Devi Bhandari (2nd)

Vice President – Nanda Kishor Pun

Speaker of House – Onsari Gharti Magar

Chief Justice – Gopal Prasad Parajuli

Parliament – Legislative Parliament includes 601 members within the 27 political parties.

Registered Political Parties – 169

2 – Area

An area of Nepal is 147181 sq. km. (56827 miles) with an elongated brick shape. The length is 885 km from East Mechi River to West Mahakali River and Breadth from north to south is 193 km in average, though it has145 km up to 241 km breadth. Nepal occupied 0.3% land of the South Asia and 0.03% land of the earth. An estimated area of earth is 510 million sq. km.

3 – Location

Longitude: 80° 04' East to 88° 12' East. Latitude: 26° 22' North to 30° 27' North.

4 – Climate

Sub-tropical Monsoon type

5 – Lowest Point

57.3 m. (Dhanusha, Mushaharniya) in Southeastern Terai Region.

6 – Highest Point

8848 m. (Mount Everest) in the Northeastern Himalaya Region.

7 – Border

China located to the north with 1111 km boundary that is 65 times bigger than Nepal. India located to the east, south, and west with 1808 km boundary that is 22 times bigger than Nepal.

8 – Capital

Kathmandu

9 – Language

Nepali is the official language. Total spoken languages are 123, including Nepali-speaking 44.6% (2011). 1. Nepali, 2.Maithili, 3.Bhojpuri, 4.Tharu, 5.Tamang, 6.Newar, 7. Magar, 8. Avadhi, 9. Bantawa, 10. Gurung, 11. Limbu, 12. Bajjika, 13. Urdu, 14. Rajbanshi, 15. Sherpa, 16. Hindi, 17. Chamling, 18. Santhali, 19. Chepang, 20.Danuwar, 21.Uranw/Urau, 22. Sunuwar, 23. Bangla, 24. Rajasthani, 25. Majhi, 26. Thami, 27. Kulung, 28. Dhimal, 29. Angika, 30. Yakkha, 31. Thulung, 32. Sampang, 33. Bhujel, 34. Darai, 35. Khaling, 36. Kumal, 37.Thakali, 38. Chhantyal, 39. Sign Language, 40. Tibetan, 41. Dumi, 42. Jirel, 43. Wambule, 44. Puma, 45. Hyolmo/Yholmo, 46. Nachhiring, 47. Dura, 48. Meche, 49. Pahari, 50. Lapcha, 51. Bote, 52. Bahing, 53. Koyee, 54. Raji, 56. Hayu/Vayu, 57. Byansi, 58. Yamphu/Yamphe, 59. Ghale, 60. Khariya, 61. Chhiling, 62. Lohorung, 63. Punjabi, 64.Chinese, 65. English, 66. Mewahang, 67. Sanskrit, 68. Kaike, 69. Khamchi (Raute), 70. Kisan, 71. Musalman, 72. Baram, 73. Tilung, 74. Jero/Jerung, 75, Dungmali, 76. Oriya, 77. Lingkhim, 78. Kusunda, 79. Sindhi, 80. Koche, 81, Hariyanwi, 82. Magahi, 83. Sam, 84. Kurmali, 85. Kagate, 86. Dzonkha, 87. Kuki, 88. Chhintang, 89. Mizo, 90. Nagamese, 91. Lhomi, 92. Assami, 93. Sadhani, 94. Rai, 95. Tajpuriya, 96. Khash, 97. Athpariya, 98. Ganagai, 99. Achhami, 100. Kham, 101. Malpande, 102. Dhuleli, 103. Arabi, 104. Spanish, 105. Russian, 106. Doteli, 107. Belhare, 108. Phangduwali, 109. Waling/Walung, 110. Surel, 111. Baitadeli, 112. Bankariya, 113. Bajhangi, 114. French, 115. Lhopa, 116. Dolpali, 117. Jumli, 118. Dailekhi, 118. Sonaha, 119. Dadeldhuri, 120. Bajureli, 121. Darchuleli, 122. Manange, and 123. Gadhawali.

10 – Ethnic group

Ethnic groups are 125 includes 1.Chhetree 2, Brahman - Hill 3. Magar 4. Tharu 5. Tamang 6. Newar 7. Musalman 8. Kami 9. Yadav 10. Rai 11. Gurung 12. Damai/Dholi 13. Limbu 14. Thakuri 15. Sarki 16. Teli 17. Chamar/ Harijan/ Ram 18. Koiri/Kushwaha 19. Kurmi 20. Sanyasi/Dasnami 21. Dhanuk 22. Musahar 23. Dusadh/ Pasawan/ Pasi 24. Sherpa 25. Sonar 26. Kewat 27. Brahman - Tarai 28. Kathabaniyan 29. Gharti/Bhujel 30. Mallaha 31. Kalwar 32. Kumal 33. Hajam/Thakur 34. Kanu 35. Rajbansi 36. Sunuwar 37. Sudhi 38. Lohar 39. Tatma/Tatwa 40. Khatwe 41. Dhobi 42. Majhi 43. Nuniya 44. Kumhar 45. Danuwar 46. Chepang /Praja 47. Halwai 48. Rajput 49. Kayastha 50. Badhaee 51. Marwadi 52. Satar/ Santhal 53. Jhangad/ Dhagar 54. Bantar/Sardar 55. Baraee 56. Kahar 57. Gangai 58. Lodh 59. Rajbhar 60. Thami 61. Dhimal 62. Bhote 63. Bin 64. Gaderi/Bhedihar 65. Nurang 66. Yakkha 67. Darai 68. Tajpuriya 69. Thakali 70. Chidimar 71. Pahari 72. Mali 73. Bangali 74. Chhantyal/Chhantel 75. Dom 76. Kamar 77. Bote 78. Brahmu/ Baramo 79. Gaine 80. Jirel 81. Dura 82. Badi 83. Meche 84. Lepcha 85. Halkhor 86. Punjabi/Sikh 87. Kisan 88. Raji 89. Byasi/Sauka 90. Hayu 91. Koche 92. Dhunia 93. Walung 94. Munda 95. Raute 96. Hyolmo 97. Pattharkatta/ Kushwadiya 98. Kusunda 99. Lhomi 100. Kalar 101. Natuwa 102. Dhandi 103. Dhankar/ Dharikar 104. Kulung 105. Ghale 106. Khawas 107. Rajdhob 108. Kori 109. Nachhiring 110. Yamphu 111. Chamling 112. Aathpariya 113. Sarbaria 114. Bantaba 115. Dolpo 116. Amat 117. Thulung 118. Mewahang Bala 119. Bahing 120. Lhopa 121. Dev 122. Samgpang 123. Khaling 124. Topkegola and 125. Loharung

11 – Population

2, 64, 94,504 (2011) includes 51.5 % women and 48.5 % men. The growth rate is 1.35 (2001-2011). Distribution is 6.73% in the Mountain, 43.0 % in Hill and 50.27 % in the Terai. The rural population is 83 % and urban population is 17 %. Population under the poverty line is 25.2 % (2001-2011).

12 – Life expectancy

Average life expectancy at birth (2011) - 66.6 years (Male - 65.5, Female – 67.9)

13 – Literacy Rate

65.9 % (5+years) in average, (Male-75.1%, Female-57.4%) - 2011

14 – Currency

Rupee, denomination is: 1 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000. The first-time paper note published in 1945. Gold, silver, and copper coins were used before the date.

15 – Time

5:45 hours ahead of GMT

16 – District, Municipality, and Village

Nepal has 7 provinces, 75 districts, 14 zones, 5 development regions, 191 municipalities (Kathmandu is a metropolitan city, the sub-metropolitan city is 11 & the metropolitan city is 179) and 3278 VDC. There are 36000 villages, including dispersed, beehive block, clustered, linear, nonlinear, ring and nucleus type of home. Some village in Solukhumbu and Mugu districts are above 4000 meters.

17 – Military, Police, and other facts

The 95000 military and 67416 police personnel are in Nepal. Estimated 60000 Nepalese are in the Indian Army and 3600 in the British army. Nepalese also are in Brunei army and Singapore police. Approximate 60000 HIV positive, 30000 illegal woman prostitutes, 5000 street Childs and 150000 drug addicts are in Nepal. Five million Nepalese workers are in overseas, such as Saudi Arabia, Dubai, Qatar, Kuwait, Oman, and Bahrain.

18 – Domestic and International Airport

Tribhuvan International Airport (TIA), Kathmandu is the only one international airport. There are 45 domestic airports including 33 weather airports (13 in Terai, 16 in Hill and 15 in Mountain district). The busy airports are Kathmandu, Pokhara, Biratnagar, Bhairahawa, Lukla, and Nepalgunj.

19 – World’s Highest Mountains

1: Mount Everest (8848m highest), 2: Mount Kanchenjunga (8586m 3rd), 3: Mount Lhotse (8516m 4th), 4: Mount Makalu (8463m 5th), 5: Mount Cho Oyu (8201m 6th), 6: Mount Dhaulagiri (8167m 7th), 7: Mount Manaslu (8163m 8th) 8: Mount Annapurna I (8091m 10th).

20 – Geographical Regions

Himalayan Region (22,077.15 sq km) is ranging 3000 m to 8848 m. That has 885 km length; 25 km to 50 km breadth occupied 15 % land of Nepal. The snow line is at 5000 m, 6% land has ever covered with snow. There are 16 districts, three subdivisions of the Himalayas, such as Greater Himalayas, Trans-Himalayas, and Inner Himalayas. There are 28 Himalayan ranges 1310 mountain peaks, including 250 peaks above 6000 meters. For the climbing purpose opened the 327 peaks.

Hilly Region (1, 00,083.08 sq km) is ranging 600 m to 3000 m. that has 885 km length and 75 km to 125 km breadth. There are 39 districts covered 68 % land of the country, including Midland (valleys, tars, and basins), Mahabharata range, and Churia range.

Terai Region (25,020.77 sq km) is ranging 58 m to 600 m in the south that have 740 km length and 40 km breadth. There are 20 districts with the three sub-divisions, such as Inner Terai, Bhabar Terai, and Southern Terai covered17 % land of the country.

21 – Major Cities

Kathmandu, Patan, Bhaktapur, Pokhara, Biratnagar, Janakpur, Hetauda, Dhankuta, Birendranagar, Dharan, Birgunj, Rajbiraj, Butwal, Bhairahawa, Tansen, Narayangarh, Damak, Birtamod, Lahan, Nepalgunj, Dhangadhi, Damauli, Baglung, Kalaiya, Mahendranagar, Kohalpur, Dipayal, Surkhet, Banepa, and Parasi.

22 – Luminaries

King Janak, Sita, Gautama Buddha, Amshuverma, Araniko, King Ram Shah, Prithvi Narayan Shah, Balabhadra Kunwar, Amar Singh Thapa, Bhimsen Thapa, Poet Bhanu Bhakta Acharya, Poet Moti Ram Bhatta, King Tribhuvan, Sankhadhar Sakhwa, Pasang Lhamu Sherpa, Mahaguru Falgunanda

23. Tourists by major Nationality

Australia, Austria, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, Sri Lanka, United States of America, and United Kingdom.

24 – Tourism Activities

Trekking, hiking, tours, peak climbing, expedition, whitewater rafting, skydiving, bungee jump, ski, Zip Flyer, Paragliding, ultra light aircraft, honey hunting, fishing, wildlife safari, meditation, event tourism, city tour, shopping, nightlife, convention, health center, research aims, canyoning, and Everest flight.

25 - Places to visit

Kathmandu Valley - Pashupatinath Temple, Swayambhunath Stupa, Bhaktapur Durbar Square, Kathmandu Durbar Square, Patan Durbar Square, Chandragiri Hills, Nagarkot, Dhulikhel, Boudhanath, Changunarayan, Sleeping Vishnu, Garden of Dreams, Thamel, Chobhar Gorge, Toudaha, Pharping, Dakshinkali, Bungamati, Khokana, Bajra Barahi, Godawari Botanical Garden, Fulchowki Hill, White Gumba, Jamacho, Sankhu, Bajra Yogini, Kakani, Kailashnath Mahadev Statue, and Namo Buddha. Pokhara Valley - Sarangkot, World Peace Stupa, Phewa Lake, Lakeside, Davis Falls, Gupteswar Cave, Begnas Lake Mahendra Cave, Matikhan Gumba, International Mountain Museum, K I Singh Bridge, and Bindyabasini Temple, Panchase, and Dhampus.

Terai Region and around- Chitwan National Park, Bardia National Park, Lumbini, Tansen, Bandipur, Nuwakot, Devghat, Barah Chhetra, Gadi Mai Temple, Khotang Haleshi Mahadeva, Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Janakpurdham, Ilam, Namje Village, Bhedetar, Biratnagar, Birgunj, and Dharan.

Himalayan Region - Everest Base Camp, Annapurna Base Camp, Gosainkunda Lake, Langtang Valley, Kanchenjunga Base Camp, Poon Hill, Sikles, Helambu Tamang Village, Myagdi Tatopani, Upper Mustang, Muktinath Temple, Tsum Valley, Larkye Pass, Thorung Pass, Badimalika, Ganga Jamuna, Dhaulagiri Base Camp, Tilicho Lake, Shey Phoksundo Lake, Ghale Gaun, Sirubari Village, Rara Lake, Dullu Dailekh, Kakre Bihar, and Dhorpatan.

26 – Uniqueness

The highest point of earth, Mount Everest (8848 m), the birthplace of Gautama Buddha, Lumbini, and the Living Goddess Kumari of Kathmandu are unique. The longest waterfall, Hyatung Waterfall (365 meters), 319 types of orchid flower, 32 types of the rhododendron flower with the national flower, Rhododendron Arboretum (Laligurans), national bird, Impeyan pheasant (Danphe), and an endemic bird, spiny babbler are noticeable.

27 – Endangered Mammals

Red Panda, Wild Yak, Himalayan Musk Deer, Great Tibetan Sheep, Snow Leopard, Tibetan Antelope, Brown Bear, Hispid Hare, Clouded Leopard, Lynx, Striped Hyenas, Assamese Monkey, Grey Wolf, Linsang, Leopard Cat, Chinese Pangolin, Indian Pangolin, One Horned Rhinoceros, Swamp Deer, Gaur Bison, Wild Water Buffalo, Asiatic Elephant, Royal Bengal Tiger, Four Horned Antelope, Blackbuck, Pigmy hog and Gangetic Dolphin.

28 – Endangered Reptiles

Python, gharial crocodiles, and golden monitor lizard.

29 – Endangered Birds

Impeyan Pheasant, Crimson Horned Pheasant, Cheer Pheasant, Bengal Florican, Great Pied Hornbill, Black Stork, Sarus Crane, Satyr Tragopan, and Lesser Florican.

30 – Major Production of Food Crops

Paddy (40, 23,823 metric tons in 1481289-hectare land), maize (18, 55,184 metric tons in 875660-hectare land), millet (2, 99,523 metric tons), jute (12959 metric tons), cotton (109 metric tons), and wheat (15, 56,539 metric tons in 731131 hectare land).

31 – Major cash crops

Sugarcane (28, 07,104 metric tons), Oil-Seeds, Tobacco, Tea (16,607 metric tons), coffee (308 metrics ton), Potato (25, 17, 696 metric tons), and Cardamom. Other productions are lentil, buckwheat, vegetable, meat, goat, chicken, male water buffalo, nak cheese, ghee, milk, curd, pickle, different vegetables, mustard seeds, mango, cucumber, pineapple, strawberry, sugarcane, apple, orange, papaya, and guava.

32 – Spices

Chilly, cumin, ginger, garlic, sesame, onion, coriander, turmeric, paper, cinnamon, black cardamom, dates, asafoetida, nutmeg, carom seed, Raisins, Saffron, fenugreek, coconut, bay leaf, Jimbu, cloves, and Timur.

33 – Food and Drinks

Dal (lentil soup), Bhat (boiled rice), and Tarkari (vegetable curry) is the national food. Pickle, Nepalese porridge, chicken and mutton curry are popular. Rice wine, millet wine, Chyang, Tumba, coffee, and tea are drinks.

34 – Export and Import

Exports: Tea, coffee, noodle, soaps, pashmina, carpet, handicrafts, brick, honey, ginger, lentil, rice, ready-made clothes, and medicinal plant. Imports: Medicine, diesel, petrol, kerosene, airline fuel, cooking gas, packet foods, mineral water, energy bars, meat, powder milk, electric goods, clothes, sheep wool, vehicles, chemical fertilizer and crop seed from India, China, and other countries. Foreign Trade exports: NRs. 58.14 billion (CBS 2010/11) and imports: NRs. 358.4 billion (CBS 2010/11).

35 – Major Industries

Cement, Sugar, Match, Textiles, Cigarette, Leather, Flour, Carpets, Paper, Garments, and Soap. Others are tile and brick factory, Pharmaceuticals limited, steel industry, pashmina, beverage factory, tea, coffee and soap industries.

36 – Major Industrial Areas

Industrial areas are twelve: Kathmandu, Hetauda, Patan, Dharan, Nepalgunj, Pokhara, Butwal, Bhaktapur, Birendranagar, Dhankuta, Biratnagar, and Rajbiraj.

37 – Crime in Nepal

Child Marriage, Polygamy, Dealing in persons, Gambling, Intoxication drugs, Stealing animals, Theft, Robbery, Rape, Cow Slaughter, Suicide by Burning, Hanging, Poison, hanging and jumping, Abortion, Murder etc.

38 – Types of Court

District Court, Appellate Court, and Supreme Court

39 – Religion

Hindu (81.3%), Buddhist (9%), Islam (4.4%), Kirat (3.0%), Christian (1.4%), Prakriti, Bon, Jain, Bahai, and Sikh.

40 – GDP

24.067 billion US Dollar (2016)