+977 9849491482 (Lok)

Flora in Nepal

Flora in Nepal

Flora in Nepal is interesting with floral exploration by Buchanan-Hamilton and Francis Hamilton (British) from 1802 – 1803. Those pioneers had taken scientific exploration in the Himalayas collecting at least 1100 species of plant. Nathaniel Wallich (Australian) collected the plants from 1820 to 1821. David Don (French) studied and collected plants in 1825. He had published a book, Prodromus Florae Nepalensis in seventy different languages. The rich biodiversity country Nepal has 118 ecosystems and thirty-five types of forest. There are found 7000 types of flowering plants, including, 246 plants endemic, 2000 plants for food value, 1000 plants for medicinal purposes, 150 plants for cash crops, and 100 plants for timber value. There are found two endangered and four vulnerable species. Nepal has 2.2% of all flowering plants on earth. 

Flora in Nepal offers to explore the national flower rhododendron arboreum which are 32 species at 1200 m to 3500 m above sea level. It has white, pink, red, and mixed colour. There are 319 species of orchid flower. The Caterpillar fungus is called Yartsa Gunbu in the Tibetan language and is found above 4,000 meters. Clavicipitaceae is a family and Cordyceps Sinensis is its botanical name. The worm-like caterpillar grows in the early summer and is affected by fungus in the monsoon. It is being grown and the plant comes out of the anterior end of the worm. It remains 6 months plant and the next 6 months insect. It is used for natural tonic.

Bamboo is the fastest-growing plant with its 3 types, Bans, Ningaalo, and Maalingo which is extremely useful for Nepal's farmers. Pines are found in 21 species. Daphne bholua (Nepali paper tree) grows from 2100 m to 3300 m. The bark (Lokta) is used to make paper. The silk cotton tree (Bombax malabaricum) blooms in spring with a red flower. Hemp grows like a weed everywhere in the country. Stinging nettle (burn plant) is used for soup. Apple found above 2500 meters. Soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi), butter fruit (Bassia butyracea), box myrtle (Myrica esculenta), and sour berry (Spondias axillaris) are found above 1400 meters. The Holy Seed Bead (Elaeocarpus nerefolia), Emblica (Phyllanthus Emblica), betel nut, and Coconut grow in tropical zones above 57.3 meters. Jatropha is used to clean teeth and biodiesel.

Flora in Nepal is also available in the Himalayan region. Primulas, gentians, edelweiss, anemones, saxifrages, geraniums, and cinquefoils are found in the subalpine and alpine grasslands in late spring and summer. The bottle brush, jacaranda, cherry, eucalyptus, April flower, poinsettia, Mongolia, grevillea, hibiscus, camellia, cosmos, salvia, marigold, chrysanthemum, lotus, Gulmohar, prunus (wild cherry), and Legetromia grows in different altitude. The Forest Act 1993 has divided five sub-categories of the national forest including government forest, protected forest, common forest, leasehold forest, and religious forest. The climatic, physiographic, and edaphic factor determines a plant in a particular area. Nepalese depends on fuel, medical herbs, animal fodder, and a host of other basic materials from the forest. Out 40 % of the total land was covered by forest until 1971. 29 % of the total land is covered with forest now. The reason is population growth, lack of plantation, conservation, and soil erosion. The five types of natural vegetation are given below. 

Sub-tropical evergreen forest (60 m to 1200 m)

The sub-tropical evergreen forest is in Terai, Bhabar, and inner Terai. The Sal (Shorea Robusta), Khaer (Acacia catechu), Sissoo (Dalbergia), Silk cotton (Bombax malabaricum) and Jamun grows here.

Deciduous monsoon forest (1200 m to 2100 m)

Deciduous Monsoon Forest is in the Upper Churia and Lower Mahabharata range. The main vegetation is Chilaune (Schima wallichii), chestnut (Castanopsis indica), oak (Banjh), alder (Alnus Nepalensis), lakuri, Mongolia, prunus, bamboo (Dendrocalamus), rhododendron, Bodhi tree, banyan tree, palas, and Chir pine (Pinus roxburghii).

Evergreen coniferous forest (2100 m to 3300 m)

Evergreen coniferous forest is in the Upper part of the Mahabharata and the Lower part of the Himalayas. The main vegetations are Kharsu (Semecarpifolia), pine, Devdaar (Himalayan cedar), rhododendron, silver fir (Abies spectabilis), birch, fir, juniper, spruce, bamboo, and chestnut tree.

Alpine grassland (3300 m to 5000 m)

Alpine grassland has a cold climate, low rainfall and the high Himalayan region. There are varieties of grasses, bushes, and flowering plants such as primulas, Juniperus sp., Lonicera sp., Hippophae sp., Potentilla sp., Androsace sp. and the Fungus-caterpillar.

Cold desert vegetation (above 5000 m)

Cold desert vegetation grows in the high mountain region. There are tundra plants, such as mosses (Kai) and lichens (leu). Fungi and yeast grow up to 8000 meters in Everest Region. For further information visit here. 

List of fruits in Nepal

1. Mango 2. Apple 3. Tangerine 4. Guava 5. Papaya 6. Strawberry 7. Pomegranate 8. Jackfruit 9. Wood apple 10. Lime 11. Peach 12. Hog plum 13. Persimmon 14. Box Myrtle 15. Grape 16. Banana 17. Watermelon 18. Lychee 19. Coconut 20. Betel Nut 21. Apricot 22. Pears 23. Pineapple 24. Chinese Date 25. Java Plum 26. Avocado 27. Kiwi 28. Dragon Fruit 29. Lemon 30. Pomelo 31. Sweet orange or Junar 32. Raspberry 33. Plum 34. Fig 35. Cherry 36. Walnut 37. Chestnut 38 Almond