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Culture and society in Nepal

Culture and society in Nepal adopted multilingual, multi-religious, multi-racial and plural culture societies based on textual tradition, including Brahmin (priestly caste), Chhetri (warriors and rulers), Vaisya (traders and farmers) and Shudra (artisans). Oral traditions and practices are used in 142 identified ethnic caste groups. An ascetic tradition followed by Yogi and Yogini (who left their family seeking salvation living in a Kuti). Monks live at the monastery Nuns live at the nunnery. The Himalayan, Hilly, and Terai regions of Nepal practise their own culture and society. 

Culture and society in Nepal are remarkable because of the altitude variation, climate, kinship, settlement, language, dress, food habits, religion, customs, and beliefs. Terai people live in warm temperatures with agriculture, and industry jobs. Hilly people live in cool temperatures with agriculture, and animal husbandry professions. Himalayan people live in cold temperatures with mountaineering and caravan trading. Nepal's culture and society depend on the Hierarchy group, Segmental group and Hunting and Gathering group. Additional details are below

Hierarchies group 

Nepal has adopted a caste system since the 14th century in Kathmandu Valley. King Jayasthiti Malla established four castes, Brahmins, Chhetri, Vaishyas, and Shudras. He also fixed 64 castes of Newar people in Kathmandu Valley in the professions. The Hierarchical groups can recognize by their features, such as a profession is determined by birth, they are interdependent, and the hierarchy rules depend on touchable and untouchable. 

Segmental group 

Segmental groups are ethnic groups that live in a certain part of Nepal. Their characteristics, such as a profession are not determined by birth, they are independent, and they have their own territory and language. They are touchable and not related to the hierarchy. 

Hunting and gathering group 

Hunting and gathering groups are known as nomadic Raute, whose history dates back to 10000 years. The tribe live in the far western region of Nepal. They live in the jungle, especially in province number five Rapti River to province number seven Mahakali River's Dang, Dailekh, Jajarkot, Surkhet, Salyan, Kalikot, Achham, Jumla, Darchula, Baitadi district. They live in a hut with approximately 141 members who speak the Khamsi language. The indigenous tribe has three clans (Gotras) Raskoti (24 F+18 M), Kalyal (43 F+35 M) and Swabanshi (10 F+11 M). They should marry different clans. Mukhia is the selected leader who manages his rule and regulation. They follow the Hindu religion and Daremasto as their tutelary deity. They worship Masto Bhairav, Nagas and Nature. They never go to a school, though carve special wooden goods. That exchange of rice and clothes to a village is the principle of the ancient barter system.

Hunting and gathering groups shift their camp within a few months, nevertheless, they can return to the same place after 12 years. Guna Monkey (common langur), wild fruits and vegetables are their staple food. They know how to use a bow and arrow. They take a net, a long side bag, a knife, and a wooden hammer before heading to hunting. A method of hunting is unique to catching and killing the monkey. Fifteen or twenty men in a group go hunting. First of all, whistle together to a monkey afterwards, it will faint and they will kill. They are not killing the entire monkey; leave at least a couple of monkeys to grow a population. Men usually wear a headscarf and criss-cross clothes without sewing and women wear sewing clothes only by themselves. Females wear a coin ring and metal ornaments. Women help to bring water, firewood to the kitchen.

Nepal Hunting and gathering group are not happy with the modern facilities. Only men go to the jungle for hunting. People from outside are not allowed in their hut. If they met outsiders at the time of hunting departure, they feel unlucky. They celebrate Dashain, Tihar and Maghe Sankranti festivals. Men arrange dance in December and January, but women are not allowed even to glimpse. Mukhia and his assistants meet district officials after a problem. Occasionally Nepal government provides them with food and money. They proudly say that they are the king of the forest. The women are never called by a name, though men select their name after 10-12 years. They have never celebrated a funeral ceremony; in addition, take 13 days of mourning after a family member’s death. They believe birth and death are a blessing of God. They never touched money before though now take 2000 Rupees social security allowance every month from the local government. 

Himalayan Culture & Society 

Himalayan culture and society are adapted north part of Nepal. Tibetan types of Nepalese people known as Bhotia live in the high mountain. Racially, they belong to the Tibeto-Mongoloid group and speak the Tibeto-Burmese language. They live between 7000 ft to 15000ft above the sea. They follow Tibetan Buddhism and Shamanism. Lopas, Lhomis, Langtange, Sherpas, Shyars, Yolmowas, Neshyangwas, Nymbas, Narwas, Mugalis, Gyasumdowas, and Dolpowas are their ethical names. Climatically, the Himalayan Region has a low oxygen pressure, high radiation value, low temperature and absolute humidity of the air.

Himalayan culture and society combined with the geo-ecological factors that limit the socio-economic condition. There are poorly developed soil, steep and irregular relief mountain, a choice of limited crops, single pattern crops, isolated settlement and a lack of arable land. Buckwheat, potato, barley, and radish are the staple food. They drink home-brewed liquor such as Chhyang and Raksi. Pastoralists, herding, oasis cultivation (Sep to Dec), caravan trading, trekking, and mountaineering are their professions. They have a simple family and have lived in a bee hives block, clustered and dispersed. They wear Bakhu and Docha with other warm clothes.

Himalayan culture and society have unique to the trans-human system, including the summer and winter settlement. The second son and the first daughter of a family send to the Monastery and Nunnery. The long free-standing along the stone wall is locally called Mani. An engraved entrance gate, hanging prayer flags, piling of stone, erected flags on the roof and counting prayer beads with the compassion mantra (Om Mani Padme Hum) are their religious attributes. Yartung (Aug-Sep), Losar (Feb-Mar), Mani Rimdu, and Dumjee (Oct-Nov) are the mountain festival. Sororate, levirate, capture (at a festival), elopement, divorced, monandry (one wife) and polyandry (more than one husband) marriage systems are adapted. The polyandry marriage system remained in a few families. A woman can marry with 2 to 6 brothers in a family because of economic and social reasons. The husband meets their wife in a routine. Herding, caravan trading, and mountaineering are their professions. All family members met together at the New Year Festival (Losar). 

Hilly culture and society 

Hilly culture and society fascinated the Hill region of Nepal. The Rai, Limbu, Sunuwar, Jirel, Surel, Thami, Danuwar, Tamang, Newar, Chepang, Bankaria, Kusunda, Gurung, Dura, Gaine, Thakali, Magar, Raute, Badi, Damai, Kami, Sarki, Chhetri, Thakuri, and Brahmin are live in there. They live at 3000 ft to 7000 ft above sea level. They speak the Indo-Aryan and Tibeto-Burmese languages. Religiously, the caste groups follow Hinduism and Shamanism and other groups follow Tibetan Buddhism and Christianity.

Hilly culture and society are based on geological conditions. There are a gently sloping land and a terraced field. People live in a small and joint family and collect firewood and animal fodder from the forest. The village patterns are clustered, dispersed and homogeneously. Rice, maize, and millet are a staple food. People work hard and respect the guest as the god at their home.

Hilly culture and society have remained the profession of agriculture, animal husbandry, recruiting the army, mountaineering, trekking, hotel business, alehouse, tea arena, weaving and making artefacts and muleteer. Women wear a sari, bodice, and patuka. Men wear a daurasuruwalkachad, and Bhangra. Dashain, Tihar, Lhosar, and Holy are their festival. Deceased people are either cremated or buried and a mourning time will be 7 to 13 days. 

Terai culture & society 

Terai culture and society remained in the southern part of Nepal. Tharu, Madhesi, Dhimal, Satar, Muslim, Jhangad, Musahar, Rajbansi and the Hill migrants live in Terai Region. Attitudinally they live between 188 ft to 3000 ft above sea level. The plain land is a rice bowl of Nepal. Farming and business are their professions. There are caste and ethnic groups. Tharus are culturally quite fascinating people in Terai.

Terai culture and society are unique because of cultural dance, death rites, tradition, and lifestyle. The wildlife safari parks are located in Chitwan, Bardia, Parsa and Koshi Tappu. People have a small and large joint family in the subtropical and tropical climatic regions. The temperature remains warm that grows up to 42° Celsius. People produce rice, wheat, mustard, lentil, maize, sugarcane, jute, pineapple, mango, banana, and jackfruit.

Terai culture and society related to agriculture. Animal husbandry, industry labours, mason, carpenter, and fishing are their profession. An exchange, age variation, elopement, by force, levirate and the parallel cousin marriage practise there. Dead people are cremated and buried with a mourning time of 3 to 13 days.