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Fauna in Nepal

Fauna in Nepal

Fauna in Nepal was an exploration history from 1820 to 1843 by Sir Brian Hodgson (British), who published at least 100 papers about birds, reptiles, and mammals. He was a professional hunter whose collection went to the British Museum. Nepal has 4.2% of mammals and 8.5% of birds on earth. There are 895 species of birds, 42 species of globally endangered (with a migratory bird), 208 species of mammal, 100 species of reptile (including 83 species of snakes), 43 amphibians, 600 species of butterfly, 50 species of moth, 180 species of dragonfly, and the 170 species of fish in Nepal. 

The fauna in Nepal is colourful with the climatic conditions and altitude variation. Nepal has 12 national parks, Chitwan National Park (932 sq. km.), Sagarmatha National Park (1148 sq. km.), Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park (159 sq. km.), Bardia National Park (968 sq. km.), Langtang National Park (1710 sq. km.), Rara National Park (106 sq. km.), Makalu-Barun National Park (1500 sq. km.), Banke National Park (550 sq. km.), Khaptad National Park (225 sq. km.), Shuklaphanta National Park (305 sq. km.), Parsa National Park (637 sq. km), and Shey-Phoksundo National Park (3555 sq. km.).

Nepal has six conservation areas, including Kanchenjunga Conservation Area (2035 sq. km.), Annapurna Conservation Area (7629 sq. km.), Gaurishankar Conservation Area (2179 sq. km.), Api Nampa Conservation Area (1903 sq. km.), Blackbuck Conservation Area (172 hectares) and Manaslu Conservation Area (1663 sq. km.). There are three wildlife reserves, including Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve (175 sq. km.), Parsa Wildlife Reserve (499 sq. km.), and Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve (305 sq. km.). There are 12 buffer zones and one Hunting Reserve, Dhorpatan (1325 sq. km.). It covers 23 % of the land of the country. The birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians are below. 


There are 889 species (42 globally endangered) of birds in Nepal. The nine birds identified as endangered, including the Impeayan pheasant (national bird), the Crimson-horned pheasant, the Cheer pheasant, the Bengal florican, the Great pied hornbill, the Black stork, White stork, Sarus crane, and the lesser florican. Around 150 species of winter migratory birds arrive annually from the Northern Hemisphere, Tibet, China, Korea, Siberia, and Mongolia from mid-September to late October. The migratory species are a Gray Heron, Spoonbill, Graylag goose, Bareheaded goose, Brahminy duck, Pintail, Grey Duck, Red-crested Pochard, Golden plover, Indian cuckoo, Waders, Wildfowl, Gulls, Tundra Bean Goose, Mallard, Ruddy Shelduck, Gadwall, Eurasian teal, Greenshank, Thrush, Fly Catcher, Eurasian Curlew, Kentish Plover, Whimbrel, Black-Capper Kingfisher, and Booted Eagle and Terns. The Spiny babbler (Turdoides Nepalensis) is an endemic species.

Numerous birds live in different regions. There are seventeen species of Cuckoo, eight species of Stork, Fifty-five species of bat, and Six species of Pheasants. It reports fifteen species of a crow family, including a large Raven in the trans-Himalayan region. Thirty species of Flycatchers, 60 species of Warblers, and the thrushes are in the country. The Himalayan griffon vulture (Gyps Himalayensis) and the bone-eating Lammergeyer (Gypaetus barbatus) are in the Mustang and Dolpa districts.

There are eleven species of white-throated laughing thrush. The Yellow Weaver lives in Suklaphanta. Nepal has a Yellow-bellied fantail, Green-backed, Coal and Gray tits, Treecreeper, Golden-backed woodpeckers, hill pigeon, common kingfisher, grey wagtails, whistling thrush, and River chat. The six species of Minivet (Rani Charo), brain fever bird (start slow and to high pitch), Asian magpie robin, Snowcock, Snow Pigeon, Seven species of Accentors, Nine species of pipits, Choughs, Honeyguide (look like sparrows), Four species of forktails (Khole dhobi), Demoiselle crane (Karang Kurung), Drongo, and Peacock are available in the country. A farm in Lumbini has 2000 ostrich. Tourists can visit several places for bird watching, including Kathmandu Valley, Pokhara Valley, Jagadishpur Lake, Ghodaghodi Lake, Koshi Tappu, Karnali, Narayani rivers, Himalayan Region, and the National Parks. 

Reptiles and amphibian 

Reptiles and amphibians are two indigenous species in Chitwan National Park, such as crocodile, gharial and marsh mugger. The monitor lizard, python, and gharial crocodile are in endangered species. Venomous snakes, including cobras and kraits live in the Terai region. Pit viper lives in the Hill region. The Himalayan rock lizard, turtles, chameleon lizard, skinks, geckos, frogs, toads, newts, caecilian, skittering frog (Rani bhyaguto), mice, and shrews are in Nepal.


Mammals suggest exploring Nepal. There are 208 species of mammals. The country reported different mammals. There are twenty-seven species of endangered animal, such as the Red panda (Ailurus fulgens), Wild Yak, Musk deer (Moschus chrysogasfer), Great Tibetan sheep, Snow leopard (Panthera uncial), Tibetan antelope, Brown bear, Hispid hare, Clouded leopard, Lynx, Striped hyena, and Assamese monkey. There is a wolf, Lingsang, Leopard cat, Pangolin (Indian and Chinese), One-horned rhinoceros, Swamp deer, Gaur bison, Wild water buffalo, Wild elephant, Tiger, Four-horned antelope, Blackbuck, Pigmy hog, and the Gangetic dolphin.

There are six types of deer. The country boasts a porcupine, jackal, Himalayan goral (Nemorhaedus goral/Ghoral), Himalayan Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus/Jharal) grey langur (Presbytis entellus), Yellow-throated marten (Malsapro-Martes flavigula), leopard (Panthera pardus), Indian muntjac (ratuwa), Mainland serow (Capricornis sumat raensis), Himalayan marmot (Marmota Bobak), Argali (Nayan), Tibetan Antelope (Chiru), Himalayan Serow (Thar), Himalayan black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus), Blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur/Naur) sloth bear, Large Indian Civet (Thulo Nir Biralo), Indian Grey Mongoose (Thulo Nyaurimusa), Smooth-coated Otter (Khairo Oat), Honey Badger (Ratel), Gray wolf (Bwasho), Stone Marten (Himali Malsapro), Brown bear (Rato Bhalu), Golden Jackal (Syal), Jungle Cat (Ban Biralo), Dhole (Ban Kukur), Hog Badger (Sungure Bhalu), Spotted Linsang (Silu Biralo), Bengal Fox (Phusro Phyauro), Tibetan Fox (Bhote Phyauro), and the fruit bat. Nepal is a home of yak, nak (female yak), horses, water buffalo, cattle, goats, mules, donkeys, hares, guinea pigs, and the black pig. The list of 208 mammals is below.

1. Grey Wolf

2. Brown Bear

3. Dhole

4. Clouded Leopard

5. Royal Bengal Tiger

6. Snow Leopard

7. Fishing Cat

8. Striped Hyaena

9. Smooth-coated Otter

10. Honey Badger

11. Spotted Linsang

12. Sloth Bear

13. Himalayan Black Bear

14. Red Panda

15. Bengal Fox

16. Lynx

17. Common Leopard

18. Leopard Cat

19. Crab-eating Mongoose

20. Eurasian Otter

21. Large Indian Civet

22. Golden Jackal

23. Jungle Cat

24. Indian Grey Mongoose

25. Small Asian Mongoose

26. Yellow-throated Marten

27. Stone Marten

28. Siberian Weasel

29. Masked Palm Civet

30. Common Palm Civet

31. Small Indian Civet

32. Tibetan Fox

33. Red Fox

34. Asiatic Golden Cat

35. Marbled Cat

36. Asian Small-clawed Otter

37. Hog Badger

38. Large-toothed Ferret Badger

39. Stripe-backed Weasel

40. Altai Wease

41. Ermine

42. Yellow-bellied Weasel

43. Binturong

44. Pygmy Hog

45. Blackbuck

46. Tibetan Gazelle

47. South Asian River Dolphin

48. Indian Chevrotain

49. Wild Water Buffalo

50. Hog Deer

51. Alpine Musk Deer

52. Swamp Deer

53. Gaur

54. Nilgai

55. Axis Deer

56. Barking Deer

57. Sambar

58. Himalayan Tahr

59. Himalayan Goral

60. Blue Sheep

61. Wild Boar

62. Wild Yak

63. Tibetan Antelope

64. Himalayan Serow

65. Argali

66. Four-horned Antelope

67. Himalayan Musk Deer

68. Black Musk Deer

69. Great Evening Bat

70. Csorba’s Mouse-eared Bat

71. Harlequin Bat

72. Mandelli's Mouse-eared Bat

73. Short-winged Pipistrelle

74. Andersen's Leaf-nosed Bat

75. Blyth's Horseshoe Bat

76. Tibetan Tube-nosed Bat

77. Leschenault’s Rousette

78. Great Himalayan Leaf-nosed Bat

79. Greater False Vampire

80. Greater Short-nosed Fruit Bat

81. Indian Flying Fox

82. Intermediate Horseshoe Bat

83. Greater Horseshoe Bat

84. Woolly Horseshoe Bat

85. Big-eared Horseshoe Bat

86. Pearson's Horseshoe Bat

87. Least Horseshoe Bat

88. Chinese Horseshoe Bat

89. Asian Barbastelle

90. Painted Bat

91. Common Bentwing Bat

92. Round-eared Tube-nosed Bat

93. Hodgson's Bat

94. Nepalese Whiskered Bat

95. Nepal Myotis

96. Himalayan Whiskered Bat

97. Coromandel Pipistrelle

98. Javan Pipistrelle

99. Least Pipistrelle

100. Greater Asiatic Yellow House Bat

101. Longed-winged Tomb Bat

102. Least Leaf-nosed Bat

103. Fulvus Leaf-nosed Bat

104. Dawn Bat

105. Blandford's Fruit Bat

106. Little Nepalese Horseshoe Bat

107. Bronze Sprite

108. Surat Serotine

 109. Serotine

110. Chocolate Pipistrelle

111. Tickell's Bat

112. Hardwicke's Woolly Bat

113. Small Long-fingered Bat

114. Hutton's Tube-nosed Bat

115. Rufous Tube-nosed Bat

116. Lesser Mouse-eared Bat

117. Mountain Noctule

118. Noctule

119. Brown Big-eared Bat

120. Grey Long-earred Bat

121. Lesser Asiatic Yellow House Bat

122. Himalayan Water Shrew

123. Indochinese Shrew

124. Hodgson's Brown-toothed Shrew

125. Long-tailed Brown-toothed Shrew

126. Sikkim Large-clawed Shrew

127. House Shrew

128. Horsefield's Shrew

129. Pale Grey Shrew

130. Arboreal Brown-toothed Shrew

131. Elegant Water Shrew

132. Lesser Stripe-backed Shrew

133. Highland Shrew

134. Eurasian Pygmy Shrew

135. Pygmy White-toothed Shrew

136. Anderson's Shrew

137. Himalayan mole

138. Hispid hare

139. Himalayan pika

140. Indian hare

141. Woolly hare

142. Plateau Pika

143. Lama's pika

144. Large-eared pika

145. Nubra pika

146. Royle's pika

147. Moupin pika

148. Greater One-horned Rhinoceros

149. Kiang

150. Indian Pangolin

151. Chinese Pangolin

152. Assam Macaque

153. Tarai Grey Langur

154. Nepal Grey Langur

155. Rhesus Macaque

156. Himalayan Grey Langur

157. Asian Elephant

158. Himalayan Field Mouse

159. Black Giant Squirrel

160. Long-tailed Field Mouse

161. Lesser Bandicoot Rat

162. Greater Bandicoot Rat

163. Indian Bush Rat

164. Soft-furred Metad

165. Common Indian Field Mouse

166. Fawn-colored Mouse

167. House Mouse

168. Brown Spiny Mouse

169. Earth-coloured Mouse

170. Short-tailed Bandicoot Rat

171. Little Himalayan Rat

172. Himalayan White-bellied Rat

173. Himalayan Field Rat

174. Brown Rat

175. Himalayan Rat

176. Black Rat

177. Indian Gerbil

178. Asiatic Long-tailed Climbing Mouse

179. Hoary-bellied Squirrel

180. Orange-bellied Himalayan Squirrel

181. Five-striped Palm Squirrel

182. Particoloured Flying Squirrel

183. Bobak Marmot

184. Himalayan Marmot

185. Red Giant Flying Squirrel

186. Himalayan Striped Squirrel

187. Royle's Mountain Vole

188. Stoliczka's Mountain Vole

189. Ladakh Hamster

190. Sikkim Vole

191. Blyth's Vole

192. Himalayan Crestless Porcupine

193. Indian Crested Porcupine

194. Ward's Field Mouse

195. Giant Bandicoot-Rat

196. Millard's Rat

197. Crump's Mouse

198. Cook's Mouse

199. Wroughton’s Small Spiny Mouse

200. Flat-haired Mouse

201. Chestnut White-bellied Rat

202. Sikkim Rat

203. Hairy-footed Flying Squirrel

204. Spotted Giant Flying Squirrel

205. Bhutan Giant Flying Squirrel

206. Hodgson's Giant Flying Squirrel

207. Bay Bamboo Rat

208. Northern Tree Shrew